Wednesday, June 24, 2020

But the research has already been done!

Sometimes when I'm talking to people about their family history they will state something along the lines of "That branch has already been researched and there is even a book so why should I do it?" When I first started my family history and genealogy research I used to have the same feelings. The Chipman family has a number of books compiled by various family members, same with the Fraser family of which I'm a descendant. Why should I duplicate all the work done by others?

To answer that question, how about we take a look at an interesting case concerning the family of "Daniel Wilsey Hatfield". Daniel married into the Lannen branch descended from Simon Baxter, in theory my 6th great-grandfather1, of New Brunswick, Canada.


Abraham Hatfield, compiler, The Hatfields of Westchester : a genealogy of the descendants of Thomas Hatfield of New Amsterdam and Mamaroneck, whose sons settled in White Plains, Westchester County, New York, (Rutland, Vermont: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 1935), p 99; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/hatfieldsofwestc00hatf_0/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 23 Jun 2020).
Abraham Hatfield, compiler, The Hatfields of Westchester : a genealogy of the descendants of Thomas Hatfield of New Amsterdam and Mamaroneck, whose sons settled in White Plains, Westchester County, New York, (Rutland, Vermont: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 1935), p 99; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/hatfieldsofwestc00hatf_0/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 23 Jun 2020).

As you can see there is a lot of good information provided. Even better, on the next page the compiler has included the authorities from where he receive the information. Something that is often omitted in these sorts of family genealogies.

Abraham Hatfield, compiler, The Hatfields of Westchester : a genealogy of the descendants of Thomas Hatfield of New Amsterdam and Mamaroneck, whose sons settled in White Plains, Westchester County, New York, (Rutland, Vermont: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 1935), p 100; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/hatfieldsofwestc00hatf_0/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 23 Jun 2020).
Abraham Hatfield, compiler, The Hatfields of Westchester : a genealogy of the descendants of Thomas Hatfield of New Amsterdam and Mamaroneck, whose sons settled in White Plains, Westchester County, New York, (Rutland, Vermont: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 1935), p 100; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/hatfieldsofwestc00hatf_0/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 23 Jun 2020).

So everything should be good to go and we can trust what is written, right?

For those that have been reading my blog you will know that one mantra I stress is along the lines of "Trust no one, verify everything, and even if written in stone it might be wrong."

So what can we verify concerning the facts about Daniel as written in his biography? How about we start with his marriage to Mary Ann Lannen?

We are fortunate that a number of the New Brunswick marriage registers are available on FamilySearch in the New Brunswick marriage registers, 1792-1889 collection. This includes the Kings County, v. A, 1812-1844; v. B, 1844-1867 marriage registers. How do I know to look there? One reason was that Ancestry gave me a hint from the New Brunswick, Canada, Marriages, 1789-1950 collection but the main reason is that back in 2012 at Library and Archives Canada I came across the entry in the transcriptions of the marriages registers by Ruby M. Cusack in her work "Kings County Marriages: Register A".

Kings, New Brunswick, Marriage Register v. A, 1812-1844, Daniel Hatfield-Mary Ann Lannen; FHL microfilm 845,798, item 1, image 163.
Kings, New Brunswick, Marriage Register v. A, 1812-1844, Daniel Hatfield-Mary Ann Lannen; FHL microfilm 845,798, item 1, image 163.

According to the marriage register, which would have been created closer to the time of the event than the biography, they were married in 1828 and not 1829. That means for me that everything in his biography from this book is now suspect and needs to be verified.

I've not been able to confirm the date of his birth but based on the decennial census enumerations between 1851 and 1871 he was born about 1798. I was able to locate abstracts of newspaper articles through the Daniel F Johnson's New Brunswick Newspaper Vital Statistics database found on the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick site to confirm the date of his death in 1878. I haven't taken the time to confirm his land ownership but with the New Brunswick, county deed registry books, 1780-1930 collection on FamilySearch it wouldn't take to much effort to track any land transactions for him.

As for Daniel's middle name, the abstracts from the newspaper articles either record it as "W." or "Wesley". In the land deed records in Kings County, New Brunswick he is recorded as "Daniel Hatfield of Norton" without any initials. His youngest son, Heber, middle name is recorded as "Wolsey" in  the 1871 census of Canada and the articles about Heber's death in Chicago. But it could be Wilsey, we just don't know.

What about Daniel's wife, Mary Ann Lannen? What can we learn about her? Using the Daniel F Johnson's New Brunswick Newspaper Vital Statistics collection we can find the abstract for her death notices in two newspapers and they both match what is in the biography. That's a good start.

However, it seems that she is not the daughter of Simon Lannen and Abigail Baxter but of John Lannen. This can be found in the abstract in the Wallace Hale's Early New Brunswick Probate, 1785-1835 database on the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick site. There in the abstract from John Lannen's will is written: "Daughter Mary Ann HATFIELD, wife of Daniel HATFIELD land."

But can we trust Wallace Hale's work? So far I haven't had any issues but since I try to verify everything, through the magic of the interlibrary loan program, back in 2015 I ordered a copy of the microfilm from the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick that holds the probate file for John Lannen.

Kings County, New Brunswick, Probate Files, RS 66, John Lannen, 1832, will, p 4; Provincial Archives of New Brunswick, F11570.
Kings County, New Brunswick, Probate Files, RS 66, John Lannen, 1832, will, p 2; Provincial Archives of New Brunswick, F11570. 

Although authorities have been listed for the information, this book doesn't indicate where they got their information. Was it from newspapers or bibles or was it from what they were told as they were growing up? We will probably never know. Just from a bit of digging through the records that are available to us we can see some mistakes in the biography of Daniel Hatfield and Mary Ann Lannen were found.

Can we blindly trust these sorts of compilations of family histories and genealogies? For me, I'd say no. However, they can provide clues for us to follow and confirm through using our own research skills.

So even if there is a book written about your family, take a look at the information held within and take the time and effort to verify and validate the facts recorded. You may just find that you discover something else that no one else has found that could change the family narrative (Widow's Pension Application = One Less Brick Wall).



1. I say "in theory" because I've not been able to connect, to my personal satisfaction, my 4th great-grandmother, Hannah Baxter, to her probable parents of Elijah and May (nee Smith) Baxter.

Monday, June 8, 2020

Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867

One resource I've started to see used more by those with roots in Nova Scotia is Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867 that was compiled by Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith and published in 1994 by the Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We are fortunate that this two volume collection has been available since 2007 on Ancestry so that we can review the books at home if you have an Ancestry subscription.

The easiest way to find the two volumes on Ancestry is via a search of the Card Catalogue. Just search for the title" "Nova Scotia Immigrants". Alternately, the links below point to the collection on Ancestry.ca.
The inclination by almost of us is to jump in and start searching for the names of our ancestors. However, don't do that, at least not yet.

First of all, visit the title page and the following page and record the details about the volumes. This will help you out later when you create your source citiations1. Next, read the page with the Abbreviations. Most of the abbreviations we may be used to but some, like "Sr." and "Jr.", might have a context that you aren't familiar with. Both of these sections can be found at the beginning of the volumes. Also, take a moment to read the preface and introduction since those sections explain why this two volume set came into existence.

However, there are two very important sections that you will need to consult once you do find your ancestors mentioned in the books and those are the Bibliographies. These sections will help you to decipher where the compilers found the information.

On with the searching!

Here is an example of one such entry I found for Mary Cantfield2.

Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:46.
Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:46.

As we can see, there is quite a bit of information that has been abstracted. We learn that Mary Cantfield is the daughter of Denis Cantfield and Catherine Ryan and the family was of County Kilkenny, Ireland. She married Richard Dunphy in Halifax on 29 Nov 1839. The "q.v." reminds us we need to look up the entry for Richard Dunphy in the volume.

Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:84.
Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:84.

In doing so we learn that Richard Dunphy is the son of Patrick Dunphy and Mary Moran and the family was of County Kilkenny, Ireland .

Yet where did the compilers find this information. That is in the parenthesis at the end, the "(34:129)". To figure that out we need to refer to the bibliographies I mentioned before.

Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:258.
Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 2:258.

Here we see that the information came from an article "Some Irish Immigrant Weddings in Nova Scotia 1834-1840" by Terrence M. Punch in the 8th edition, issue 2, of The Irish Ancestor published in 1976.

Using PERSI, the PERiodical Source Index, found on Findmypast I was able to find the details about the article and the publication but, after much searching, no online edition was easily available. But that's OK. A check of Worldcat pointed me to Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa where I could view The Irish Ancestor. In the pre-COVID-19 days I would have hopped on the bus since I reside in the same city and gone to LAC to read the article with the details extracted found on page 129. Now, it is a bit more of a challenge.

What other clue is there?

How about that the information came "from records at Catholic archdiocese at Halifax"?

Well a flight to Halifax, Nova Scotia is out of the question for me at this time. Maybe there are some Catholic Church records online. On Ancestry that might be in the "Acadia, Canada, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1757-1946" collection. However, I didn't see any records from Halifax listed.

So my next go to site is FamilySearch and their catalog. A search for "Canada, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Halifax" as a place revealed a list of 14 church collections. One specifically caught my attention, that of the "Parish registers, 1830-1969" for the Catholic Church of Saint. Mary's Basilica. Right time period and correct religion. Looking at the various entries I noticed that some were indexed but all were viewable from the comfort of home.

Screen capture of the catalog listing for Marriages, 1830-1873 from the Parish registers, 1830-1969 of Saint Mary's Basilica (Halifax, Nova Scotia).
Screen capture of the catalog listing for Marriages, 1830-1873 from the Parish registers, 1830-1969 of Saint Mary's Basilica (Halifax, Nova Scotia).

That digitized microfilm isn't name indexed but that's OK, I have had plenty of practice looking through microfilms. After a bit of bouncing around the images on that digitized reel I came across this:

"Nova Scotia Church Records, 1720-2001," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-GBC2-9JV?cc=1925428&wc=M6PF-CWL%3A219772701%2C219796201%2C219809001%2C219901401 : 21 May 2014), Halifax > Halifax > Catholic St Mary's Basilica > Marriages 1830-1843 > image 192 of 262; Catholic Church and Church of England parishes, Nova Scotia.
"Nova Scotia Church Records, 1720-2001," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33SQ-GBC2-9JV?cc=1925428&wc=M6PF-CWL%3A219772701%2C219796201%2C219809001%2C219901401 : 21 May 2014), Halifax > Halifax > Catholic St Mary's Basilica > Marriages 1830-1843 > image 192 of 262; Catholic Church and Church of England parishes, Nova Scotia.

All the details in the abstract can now be confirmed by looking at the entry from the parish register plus we know now the names of the witnesses.

It is important to keep in mind that most items listed in the bibliographies may not be available online. This is where your to-do list becomes important. Such is the case for my Starr line of Nova Scotia.

Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 1:486.
Col. Leonard H. Smith Jr. and Norma H. Smith, compilers, Nova Scotia Immigrants to 1867, 2 vols.(Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc., 1994); digital images, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 8 Jun May 2020), 1:486.

Joseph Starr, the son of Samuel Starr and Abigail Leffingwell, is of interest to me due to him being in Connecticut at the start of the United States of America War of Independence and supposedly escaping back to Nova Scotia after refusing to serve in the Connecticut militia. So I'm always looking for information about him and his exploits.

Here I learn that the source of the information is on page 238 in the Nova Scotia Historical Quarterly, volume 7, issue 3 published on September 1977 in the article "The History of the Nova Scotia Apple Industry". There is also information in the same article about his mother and father. Although I can purchase a copy, since I'm in no rush, I'm going to wait until Library and Archives Canada is open to the public and read the article there.


A few things to take away from this little exercise:
  • When using compiled collections take the time to follow the chain of sources to locate the original documents. Sometimes you may be pleasantly surprised at what you find. Sometimes it is new information not included in the abstract; other times it might be a whole new collection of documents.
  • If looking at a baptism, marriage, or burial in a church parish register, take a look around for other events recorded that may pertain to your family. If a marriage, check for a baptism occurring within a few years time. You might come across a child you weren't aware of.
  • Not everything is online. But it never hurts to check.
  • To-do lists will help you remember what you need to sooner or later to look up. If your to-do list gets long enough you might even plan a holiday to a place that has the archive or library that houses the books or collections you want to review. While your family is out enjoy the sights you can be a time traveller and travel into the past.


1. Remember those? Your source citations help you remember where you found the information and helps others that may use your work to also know where you found those nuggets about your ancestors.

2. I have no relationship, that I know of, to the Cantfield family. It is just an example that I've helped find the source of the information for someone posting a query on a Facebook genealogy group.

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Loyalist William How(e) of Kingston... Who Are Your Parents?

One of the many reasons I write these posts is to help me record my thoughts concerning research that either has me stumped or has been tricky to resolve. This post is about the former.

In my researching of The Fair Captive I was finally able to add the oldest son of Caleb How(e)1 and Jemima Sawtelle, William. Based on various material I came across documenting the story of Jemima, it would appear that William was born about 1747.

Daniel Wait Howe, Howe Genealogies. This Volume Contains the Genealogy of John Howe of Sudbury and Marlborough, Massachusetts, Gilman Bigelow Howe, editor, (Haverhill, Massachusetts: Record Publishing Company, 1929), children of Caleb Howe and Jemima Sawtelle, p. 46; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/howegenealogiesb01howe/page/n7/mode/2up : accessed 27 May 2020).
Daniel Wait Howe, Howe Genealogies. This Volume Contains the Genealogy of John Howe of Sudbury and Marlborough, Massachusetts, Gilman Bigelow Howe, editor, (Haverhill, Massachusetts: Record Publishing Company, 1929), children of Caleb Howe and Jemima Sawtelle, p. 46; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/howegenealogiesb01howe/page/n7/mode/2up : accessed 27 May 2020).

Of course, once I recorded that information into my cousin-bait tree on Ancestry, hints started appearing for him including trees having him residing in what later became Kingston, Ontario, Canada. For those that know me, when it comes to my genealogy research one of my research mantras is "Trust know one, verify everything, and even if it's written in stone it might be wrong." So when I saw some people connecting William Howe to Caleb and Jemima Howe of Vermont as his parents I got very interested in finding out their sources and hopefully confirming (refuting would be OK also) that supposed connection.

The first possible clue from the Howe Genealogies is that William was a tory and went to Nova Scotia. That sounds like a Loyalist to me. But, much like his younger brother Caleb, my 5th great-grandfather, William appears to have fallen off the face of the Earth or at least disappeared from the United States of America. Even in Emma Lewis Coleman's work New England Captives Carried to Canada Between 1677 and 1760 During the French and Indian War, Vol. 2 beyond stating William's age when captured and then the ransom paid by Colonel Schuyler nothing else is mentioned about William. So my usually method of following a person from cradle to grave isn't going to work. Instead I'm going to start with the William Howe that ended up in the Kingston, Ontario, Canada area and see if the records about him mention anything about his parents or clues are offered up by the names of his children.

Several of the trees had images for land petitions made by his children and wife. The bottom of the images they had a source description like this:

Image from the bottom of the microfilm from Upper Canada Land Petitions (1763-1865), H Bundle (1806-1807), RG1 L3 Vol 226, petition 71 - C-2046, image 55.
Image from the bottom of the microfilmed image from Upper Canada Land Petitions (1763-1865), H Bundle (1806-1807), RG1 L3 Vol 226, petition 71; Library and Archives Canada microfilm C-2046, image 55.

From that I knew that the source of these images was from the Library and Archives "Land Petitions of Upper Canada, 1763-1865" database and archived microform collection. With a bit of searching I was able to create a table of those names of interest and the details needed to find them in microfim (the page number was added after I found the petition):

Surname
Given Name(s)
Place
Year
Volume
Bundle
Petition
Page(s)
Reference
Microfilm
HOWE
Mathew
Kingston
1798
224A
H 4
81
607-614
RG 1 L3
C-2044
HOWE/VANORDER
Margaret
Kingston
1806
226
H 8
71
55-56
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE/GALLOWAY
Margaret
Kingston
1807
226
H 8
99
158-159
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE/BUCK
Eve
Kingston
1808
226
H 8
112
217-219
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE/DENYLA
Jane
Kingston
1809
226
H 9
44
475-476
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE
Peter
Kingston
1810
226A
H 9
85
649-652
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE
George
Kingston
1811
226A
H 9
92
682-684
RG 1 L3
C-2046
HOWE
John W.
Kingston
1849
247
H 5
44
237-271
RG 1 L3
C-2101
HOWE
Daniel
Kingston
1797
224
H 3
135
119-122
RG 1 L3
C-2044
HOWE
Margaret

1797
224
H 3
57
840-841
RG 1 L3
C-2043

Some of the entries, such as Eve Howe/Buck, Jane Howe/Denyla, and John W. Howe, I've not confirmed are connected to the William Howe family since they don't reference William How(e) directly. Since I wasn't planning on going down the rabbit hole of completely documenting this William Howe family I haven't dug into those names. In each case I retrieved the multiple pages for each petition to see what clues were presented aside from the family connection. I also referenced William D Reid's book The Loyalists In Ontario to aid in my searching where we find William Howe listed along with his children that were mentioned in the Orders-in-Council records:

William D. Reid, The Loyalists in Ontario: The Sons and Daughters of the American Loyalists of Upper Canada, ( Lambertville , New Jersey: Hunterdon House, 1973), p.157, HOWE, William of Kingston; digital images, Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.ca/search/collections/49231/: accessed 18 May 2020).
William D. Reid, The Loyalists in Ontario: The Sons and Daughters of the American Loyalists of Upper Canada, ( Lambertville , New Jersey: Hunterdon House, 1973), p.157, HOWE, William of Kingston; digital images, Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.ca/search/collections/49231/: accessed 18 May 2020).

The petition for Margaret Howe/Vanorder was important since it established that Margaret was the daughter of Mathew Van order and the widow of William Howe. This will become important later on.

Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, petition of Margaret Howe Widow of William Howe and Daughter of Mathew Vanorder, dated 24 Jan 1807; RG 1 L3, C-2046, images 55-56; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, petition of Margaret Howe Widow of William Howe and Daughter of Mathew Vanorder, dated 24 Jan 1807; RG 1 L3, C-2046, images 55; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.

The petition signed by Matthew Howe and Daniel Howe dated 15 Jul 1797 also provided a few clues about William:
  • he died about 1795,
  • he had joined the British Forces and did Garrison Duty in the Embodied Loyalists at New York, and
  • he arrived in the province, now known as Upper Canada, in 1783.
Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, Volume 224, "H" Bundle 3, 1797, petition 135, for Daniel Howe; RG 1 L3, C-2044, image 120; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, Volume 224, "H" Bundle 3, 1797, petition 135, for Daniel Howe; RG 1 L3, C-2044, image 120; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.

The separate land petition submitted in by his son Mathew in 1798 was interesting not from what was written but the response by the Land Board. In his petition he wrote:
"That your Petitioners Father served during the War as a Lieutenant of Embodied Loyalists and is Since deceased in this Country..."
Mathew even had statements from David Babcock and John Burnett attesting that William Howe served under Major Ward in Captain Hamilton's Company as a Lieutenant of Embodied Loyalists from the time of the Action of the Blockhouse. However, as you can see in the image below, the board didn't accept that proof his William's rank as a Lieutenant, "There must be better proof of Wm Howe's having been a Lieut".

Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, Volume 224a, "H" Bundle 4, 1798, petition 81, for Mathew Howe; RG 1 L3, C-2044, image 614; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Upper Canada Land Petitions, 1763-1865, Volume 224a, "H" Bundle 4, 1798, petition 81, for Mathew Howe; RG 1 L3, C-2044, image 614; Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.

Yes, even with his rank not accepted, the petition of Mathew gives another clue about William:
  • he was at the "Action of the Blockhouse".
It didn't take too much digging to find this action for it seems it was the Battle of Bull's Ferry that took place in New Jersey in Bergen Township along the Hudson River opposite New York City on 20-21 Jul 1780. A stockade, the "Blockhouse", was held by 70 loyalists commanded by Thomas Ward and successfully held off the attacks by Brigadier General Anthony Wayne and his men. Could William have been made a lieutenant and placed in the chain of command of these men? Possibly, but I've not yet seen any documents such as an after action report that substantiates the claim. The story of "The Block House in Bergen Wood" was told by Dr. H. H. Burleigh in an address on 3 Mar 1965 to the Bay of Quinte Branch of the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada.

Based on these petitions we have William Howe in the New York City area in 1780s and he has been acknowledged as a Loyalist.

What can I find in New York City for that time?

Knowing the name of his wife, Margaret Vanorder, I put the following information in to the search on Ancestry:
  • Surname: Howe
  • Father's Name: William Howe
  • Mother's Name: Margaret
  • Born: 1777
  • Collection: United States
I was pleasantly surprised when I got results from the "U.S., Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989" collection for baptisms of several children: Mathew (born 1774, baptized 1775), Mary Magdalen (1776), Daniel (1778), Margareth (1780). The baptism of Mathew was particularly interesting due to one of the sponsors:

"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for Matthew, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 517 [stamped], New York City, New York.
"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database and images, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for Matthew, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 517 [stamped], New York City, New York.

I wonder, could this Matthew Van Orden be related to Margareth? Could he be the Mathew Vanorder listed in Margaret Howe's land petition?

A bit more digging through the records I find what appears to be record for the marriage of William How and Margareth Van Orden on 24 Sep 1770.

"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 18 May 2020), entry for William How and Margareth Van Orden, married 24 Sep 1770; citing Holland Society of New York; New York, New York; New York City Lutheran, Vol III, Book 87, p 103 [stamped].
"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database and images, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 18 May 2020), entry for William How and Margareth Van Orden, married 24 Sep 1770; citing Holland Society of New York; New York, New York; New York City Lutheran, Vol III, Book 87, p 103 [stamped].

As an aside, I also came across the baptism of their first son, Robert Albert, in that collection. What got me was the note above the entry, "married in September 1770 Who can help it?"

"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for Robert Albert, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 495 [stamped], New York City, New York.
"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database and images, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for Robert Albert, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 495 [stamped], New York City, New York.

Unfortunately, Robert Albert Howe was buried on 9 Sep 1772.

Based on what I found in this collection and in the land petitions and and Land Boards of Upper Canada, 1765-1804 databases the children of William Howe and Margareth Van Orden that were born in New York appear to be:
  • Robert Albert (1770-1772)
  • Elizabeth
  • Mathew (1774-)
  • Mary Magdalen (1776-)
  • Daniel (1778-)
  • Margareth (1780-)
  • William (1783-)
Sons Peter (1786-) and George, which I found via other trees and records, appear to have been born after the family left New York City. Keep in mind that I'm not researching the family so I haven't kept looking for death dates for those that left New York. However, it seems that Mary Magdalen and Margareth may have passed away in New York since I haven't found them named in land or other Loyalist claimant documents. The burial registrations for the New York Lutheran Church that Ancestry has end in 1775.

Can we find this family leaving New York?

The baptism record from 1783 for their son, William, holds a useful clue.

"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database and images, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for William, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 585 [stamped], New York City, New York.
"Dutch Reformed Church Records in Selected States, 1639-1989," database and images, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 21 May 2020), entry for William, child of William Howe and wife Margareth; citing New York City Lutheran, Volume 1, Book 85, p 585 [stamped], New York City, New York.

It appears that the family was still in New York in Oct 18, 1783.

After a bit of searching and following the various leads when sources were provided I came across the "HMS Amphitrite, Capt. Robert Briggs" under Wallace Hale's Fort Havoc pages hosted by the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. There recorded, along with the other passengers, was a William Howe and family:

Name
Women
Ch. above 8 years
Ch. under 8 years
Howe, William
1
2
2

If you have gotten this far, you know that I like to find the source of the documents, and if at all possible, save the images to my computer. The transcription stated that the information came from the Amos Botsford papers. That led me to the "Finding aid no. 525 to the Amos Botsford and Family fonds" on Heritage. I don't know about you but manually reviewing 536 images for a single line is a bit of a drudge. Lucky for us that there is a subject matter index for the fonds and for 19 Oct 1782 it had "Return of men, women and children arrived at Annapolis from New York (the list gives names of the men, with numbers of women and children)." and it could be found on page 108-111. A quick hop and jump and on page 111 near the bottom I found a William Howe and family.

Return of Men, Women & Children arrived at Annapolis from New York 19th Octr 1782, p. 111, MG 23, D 4 - Finding aid no. 525 to the Amos Botsford and Family fonds, microfilm H-1687, image 280; digital images, Canadian Research Knowledge Network, Canadiana Héritage (heritage.canadiana.ca : accessed 27 May 2020).
Return of Men, Women & Children arrived at Annapolis from New York 19th Octr 1782, p. 111, MG 23, D 4 - Finding aid no. 525 to the Amos Botsford and Family fonds, microfilm H-1687, image 280; digital images, Canadian Research Knowledge Network, Canadiana Héritage (heritage.canadiana.ca : accessed 27 May 2020).

Assuming that Elizabeth was born about 1772 (based on the gap between Robert and Mathew, and other trees on Ancestry), this would appear to be the right family consisting of William, his wife Margareth, Elizabeth and Mathew, and Daniel and William.

Only one problem!

If the baptism record for William Howe is correct then this isn't the family of William Howe and Margaret Van Orden. The family was still in New York City in 1782. Now it gets to be a challenge since there might be two Loyalist William Howe families floating around at this time in history in the New York area.

I next turned to the Loyalists landing page at Library and Archives Canada for ideas. The first place I checked was the Carleton Papers – Loyalists and British Soldiers, 1772-1784. After checking the various returned items one stood out:
Item: William HOW (27873)
Given Names(s): William
Surname: HOW
Gender: Male
Destination: Nova Scotia
Type of Document: Return of Loyalists
Date (yyyy/mm/dd) : 1782-09-22
Additional Information: LIST OF LOYALISTS FOR NOVA SCOTIA;WITH ONE WOMAN AND TWO CHILDREN
Place where the Document was Created: New York
Document Page Number: 5663 (2)
Fonds: British Headquarters Papers (Carleton Papers or American Manuscripts)
Microfilm: M-357
Reference: MG23 B1
Item Number: 27873

It is around the right time and place but the additional information only states with one woman and two children. We seem to be two children short. Regrettably, viewing this microfilm will have to wait since the M microfilms are only at Library and Archives Canada and it may be sometime before they reopen to the public.

However, is this referring to the other William How(e) that arrived in 1782? Might this be the family that is connected to the Caleb and Jemima Howe family and not the family that settled in the Kingston area?

I did find a William Howe/How of the New York Volunteers in the Loyalists in the Maritimes — Ward Chipman Muster Master's Office, 1777–1785 database at Library and Archives Canada. However, after viewing the record on Heritage in microfilm "Ward Chipman (senior and junior) fonds : C-9818" on image 426 it looks like it is written as "Wm Haws". But I can't discount it yet.

The next resource I checked was the Sir Frederick Haldimand (MG21) collection. The link to the index of Loyalists brought me to microfilm C-1475 on Heritage. It didn't take too much work to find the entries for How(e).

Name
Volume
Page
Film
Image
Notes
Howe, William
167
155h2
H-1654
1058
Sir William
Howe, William
167
156a
H-1654
1062
Sir William Howe
Howe, William
167
168
H-1654
1080
General How
Howe, William
167
353
H-1655
39
Howe, William
168
81
H-1655
196
Howe, Mrs.
166
161
H-1654
782

With much assistance from Lorine McGinnis Schulze's Olive Tree Genealogy post Finding a Loyalist in the Haldimand Papers (Loyalist Research Part 6) I was able to quickly determine which microfilms I needed to review on the Heritage site.

I knew I could discount the mentions of Sir William or General How but the other entries got my attention. Could they be the same William Howe family that settled in the Kingston area that we have been chasing?

I'm fairly certain that this is the family that we started with in Kingston.

Only one problem! (again)

And this is the really frustrating part of doing genealogy and family history research.

I'm still no closer to establishing that this William Howe that settled in Township No. 1 Cataraqui, now the Kingston area of Ontario, Canada, is the same person as the son of Caleb and Jemima (Sawtelle) Howe. Even worse, there may be another Loyalist William Howe family out there. It might be this other William Howe family that I need to be finding.

If anyone reading this can help me in the conundrum, please leave a comment. I'd like to hear from you.


Here is a list of some of the sources I consulted in addition to the ones I've mentioned or linked to in the body of this post:



1. The spelling of the name "Howe" varies in the early documents and I have seen it recorded as "How" and "Howe". From this point on, I will generally be using "Howe" unless specifically referring to a document with a different spelling.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Fair Captive

After a recent question was asked in my blog concerning Caleb Howe, my 5th great-grandfather, I decided to review what I had about him, his siblings, and his parents, Caleb Howe and Jemima Sawtelle. The good part about doing this kind of review is that I was able to finally add an older brother, William, into the tree as a child of Caleb and Jemima. However, it also started me down an interesting rabbit hole of research concerning the story of Jemima.

My encounter with Jemima's story was years ago when I came across the genealogy of the Howe family posted under the Phipps Family Pages. There I learned about the "Fair Captive" and the story of her capture during the French and Indian War. The write up on that web page mentioned that "Jemima's story became part of the "American Preceptor"..." Courtesy of the Internet Archive I was able find and download various editions of the "The American Preceptor; being a new Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools" by Caleb Bingham, initially the 1837 edition but recently I was able to find the 1801 edition on the Internet Archive. For general reading I prefer the 1837 edition since the earlier editions make use of the "long s" or "ſ" so that a word like "disposed" looks like "diſpoſed" as you can see below.

Caleb Bingham. American Preceptor; Being a New Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools (Boston, Massachusetts: Manning and Loring, 1801), p 183; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/americanprecept09binggoog/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 20 May 2020).
Caleb Bingham. American Preceptor; Being a New Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools (Boston, Massachusetts: Manning and Loring, 1801), p 183; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/americanprecept09binggoog/page/n1/mode/2up : accessed 20 May 2020).

Until you get used to reading text like that it can get confusing at times. By the way, you will have an opportunity to practice reading words with the "long s" by the end of this post.

But where did this "Fair Captive" designation come from? Please bear with me as the journey is a bit of a long one since it is all about following clues and, in one case, a bit of luck and cobbled with experience.

I started with a simple Google search with the keywords of "Jemima Sawtelle" and one of the first results was from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography for SAWTELLE, JEMIMA (Phipps; Howe; Tute). The good thing about this dictionary is that they include a list of sources used. In that list was mentioned the book New England captives carried to Canada between 1677 and 1760 during the French and Indian wars by Emma Lewis Coleman published in 1925. On pages 314-321 Jemima's story is recounted and even a few sources are stated in the footnotes. I like when I come across sources mentioned in foot or end notes!

pp.316-317:
Colonel Schuyler was again her friend, interesting himself in her ransom as is shown by the following letter from Dr. Benjamin Stakes, Surgeon of New Jersey troops, who frequently acted for him. Written in New Haven in December, 1757, it was addressed to Ebenezer Hinsdale, who enclosed it to Gov. Benning Wentworth.31
31N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 256
p.319:
Schuyler's official list34 gives "Miss How, and boys William, Josia and Peter."
34 N. Y. Docs., X, 882
Fortunately Ms. Coleman includes in her appendix of the book the abbreviations that she used. One of them, "N. Y. Docs." was defined as "Documents relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York". However, "N. H. Hist. Soc. Coll." wasn't defined but from other definitions it seemed reasonable that it was "New Hampshire Historical Society Collections".

After a bit of searching through various catalogues such as Google Books, HathiTrust, and the Internet Archive it turns out that those aren't exactly the titles of the works that Ms. Coleman was referencing.

Starting with that possible "N.H. Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 256" it took a little bit of searching but I finally turned up "Collections of the New-Hampshire Historical Society, Volume V" on the Internet Archive and on pages 256 to 258 I came across transcriptions of the letters mentioned.

[John Farmer, Nathaniel Bouton, Isaac Hill]. Collections of the New-Hampshire Historical Society, Vol. V (Concord, New Hampshire: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1837), pp.254-256, Letter of Col. Ebenezer Hindsdale to Gov. Benning Wentwork-1755; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/collectionsnewh06socigoog/page/n7/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).
[John Farmer, Nathaniel Bouton, Isaac Hill]. Collections of the New-Hampshire Historical Society, Vol. V (Concord, New Hampshire: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1837), pp.254-256, Letter of Col. Ebenezer Hindsdale to Gov. Benning Wentwork-1755; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/collectionsnewh06socigoog/page/n7/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).


For "N. Y. Docs." the title turned out to be "Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York; procured in Holland, England and France, Volume X". What was interesting to me was that the "Miss How, and the boys William Josia and Peter" was not written that way, at least in the 1858 edition:

E. B. O'Callaghan, editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York; procured in Holland, England and France, Vol. X, (Albany, New York: Weed, Parsons and Company, 1858), p.882; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/documentsrelativ10newyuoft/page/n4/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).
E. B. O'Callaghan, editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York; procured in Holland, England and France, Vol. X, (Albany, New York: Weed, Parsons and Company, 1858), pp.882; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/documentsrelativ10newyuoft/page/n4/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020); List of English prisoners delivered to Colonel Schuyler, &c.

E. B. O'Callaghan, editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York; procured in Holland, England and France, Vol. X, (Albany, New York: Weed, Parsons and Company, 1858), pp.883; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/documentsrelativ10newyuoft/page/n4/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).
E. B. O'Callaghan, editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York; procured in Holland, England and France, Vol. X, (Albany, New York: Weed, Parsons and Company, 1858), pp.883; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/documentsrelativ10newyuoft/page/n4/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020); List of English prisoners delivered to Colonel Schuyler, &c.

These are transcriptions from documents in the Archives of the "Ministère de la Marine et des Colonies;" of the "Ministère de la Guerre," and in the "Bibliothèque de Roi," at Paris. Of course, going to France at this time is not in the cards. However, on a whim as I was writing this, I did a search for the archives in question and one web site mentioned that:
Les originaux sont conservés aux Archives nationales de France. Les Archives nationales du Canada possèdent des copies des documents de la série B et d'autres séries.
That got me thinking, what about searching the Library and Archives Canada site. Even if it is just a microfilm number, once the pandemic subsides and buildings open up to the public, I can look up the microfilm. My initial search of the archives collections using the keywords "Ministère de la Marine et des Colonies" returned more than 2000 matches. That's a lot to review but not unrealistic. But what about "Schuyler"? Were there less matches and could I find one that might apply?

I couldn't believe it when the third item in the list of 789 results was "["Rôle des prisonniers anglais remis au colonel Schuyler". Certificat signé ...]. 1758, novembre, 01". That is exactly the document I was looking for. Even more amazing was that they have been digitized and put online:

"Rôle des prisonniers anglais remis au colonel Schuyler." Série C11A. Correspondance générale; Canada [document textuel (surtout des microformes)] (R11577-4-2-F). Library and Archives Canada microfilm F-103, p.289 and 291[stamped]. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa; digital images, Library and Archives Canada (http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3073215 : accessed 20 May 2020). 

As you can see, unlike what Ms. Coleman recorded, Miss How and her sons are not listed together but on separate pages in different categories.

Looking back at the various sources cited in the entry for Jemima Sawtelle in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography also mentioned in The history of New-Hampshire by Jeremy Belknap. Again, this book is available on the Internet Archive in various editions. I always prefer the edition closest to the time of the events.

Jeremy Belknap, A.M., The History of New-Hampshire, Vol. III, (Boston, Massachusetts: Belknap and Young, 1792), pp.370-388, A particular Account of the Captivity of Mrs Jemima Howe, by the Rev. Bunker Gay, of Hinsdale, in a Letter to the Author; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/historyofnewham03belk/page/n10/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).
Jeremy Belknap, A.M., The History of New-Hampshire, Vol. III, (Boston, Massachusetts: Belknap and Young, 1792), pp.370-388, A particular Account of the Captivity of Mrs Jemima Howe, by the Rev. Bunker Gay, of Hinsdale, in a Letter to the Author; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/historyofnewham03belk/page/n10/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).

In the stories that were published they reference Maj. Israel Putnam and in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography one of the sources is "An essay on the life of the Honorable Major-General Israel Putnam..." by David Humphreys. That wasn't too hard to chase down although there are multiple digitized copies available. The oldest edition I could find was "An Essay of the Life of the Honorable Major-General Israel Putnam: Addressed to the State Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut" published in 1788.
At the houſe of Colonel Schuyler, Major Putnam became acquainted with Mrs. Howe, a fair captive, whoſe hiſtory would not be read without emotion if it could be written in the ſame affecting manner, in which I have often heard it told. She was ſtill young and handſome herſelf, though ſhe had two daughters of marriagable age. Diſtreſs, which had taken ſomewhat from the original redundancy of her bloom and added a ſoftening paleneſs to her cheeks, rendered her appearance the more engaging. Her face, that ſeemed to have been formed for the aſſemblage of dimples and ſmiles, was clouded, with care. The nature ſweetness was not, however, ſoured by deſpondency and petulance; but chaſtened by humility and reſignation. This mild daughter of ſorrow looked as if ſhe had known the day of proſperity, when ſerenity and gladneſs of ſoul were the inmates of her boſom. That day was paſt, and the once lively features now aſſumed a tender melancholy, which witneſſed her irreparable loſs.
David Humphreys, An Essay of the Life of the Honorable Major-General Israel Putnam: Addressed to the State Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut,  (Hartford, Connecticut: Hudson and Goodwin, 1788), pp.74-81; digital images, Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/essayonlifeofhon1788hump/page/n3/mode/2up : accessed 18 May 2020).

Although the story as recorded by Mr. Humphreys in the telling of Israel Putnam's life is romanticized it does add some dimension to the story of Jemima How. The description of her definitely describes a "fair captive."

Jemima's story has been told in numerous publications in addition to the ones mentioned above. Some appear to be derived from the account recorded by Rev. Bunker Gay.

Her monumental inscription tells the tale of her life.

Mrs. Jemima Tute
Succeſsively Relict of Meſsrs.
William Phips, Caleb Howe & Amos Tute
The firſt two were killed by Indians
Phips July 5th AD 1743
Howe June 27th 1755
When Howe was killed She & her Children
Then ſeven in number
Were carried into Captivity.
The oldest a Daughter went to France
And was married to a French Gentleman
The youngeſt was torn from her breaſt
And periſhed with Hunger
By the aid of ſome benevolent Gent'n
And her own perſonal Heroiſm
She recovered the Reſt
She had two by her laſt Huſband
She outlived him & them
And died March 7th 1805 aged 82
Having pasted thro more viciſsitudes
And endured more hardſhips
Than any of her Cotemporaries
No more can Savage Foes annoy
Nor aught her wideſread Fame Deſtroy

Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 20 May 2020), memorial page for Jemima Sawtelle(Phipps/Howe) Tute (7 Mar 1723–7 Mar 1805), Find a Grave Memorial no. 17509287, citing North Vernon Cemetery, North Vernon, Windham County, Vermont, USA; Maintained by John Clay Harris (contributor 47322896).


So follow those citations in the books you come across that mention your ancestors. You never know what documents that you will come across will lead you.